Winter Prep: Traction

 

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Winter Tires

Chains & Traction

Sure, the tread looks different. But that’s not all that separates summer and all-season tires from their heartier winter relatives. We’ve compiled and answered all of the most commonly-asked questions about winter/snow tires. Unless you live in higher elevations or are frequently going over our mountain passes, most Oregonians can go for years without using their chains. But conditions have become a bit more unpredictable, lately. Here are some tips for chaining up this winter.

Chains & Traction

If tire chains are required, here are 10 basic guidelines for their use:

  1. Tire chains should be installed on the drive wheels of the vehicle following the chain manufacturer’s instructions, To retain as much of the normal handling characteristics of 4WD/AWD vehicles as possible, tire chains should be installed on all four tires, requiring the purchase of two pairs of tire chains.
  2. Buy chains that are the correct size for the tires. A proper fit is key to receiving the desired performance and durability. Do not deflate tires to install tire chains. A correctly sized tire chain will fit over a properly inflated tire. Additionally, because there is typically no source of compressed air to refill a deflated tire, driving with low tire pressure may cause permanent damage to the tire. Snow chains may not be available for all tire sizes.
  3. Use only SAE Class “S” chains. The restricted wheel well clearance in most of today’s down-sized and front drive vehicles require tire chains to operate in an envelope that is no greater than 1.46-inches vertically and .59-inches laterally around the tire. These minimum clearances must be maintained between the tires and the vehicle’s fenders, suspension, struts, brake lines and braces. It is important to pre-fit chains prior to actual use. Being faced with the choice of either damaging their vehicle or not completing a journey if the tire chains didn’t fit is not a choice many drivers would want to have to make. Pre-fitting the chains will also allow the driver to become familiar with their installation. Since tire chains will only be required when the weather is at its worst, who would want to learn how to install them during a blizzard? You may want to buy a tire chain installation helper. These small ramps are designed to prevent slipping and allow you to lay a cross chain in a pre-formed indentation. Once you drive onto the ramp, the chains are positioned under your tire for easier installation following the manufacturer’s directions. Watch our tutorial on installing chains.
  4. Tire chains should always be carried in the trunk during the appropriate times of the year and only mounted on the vehicle when warranted by driving conditions or required by law. Chain requirements can change depending on the region and severity of the snowstorm, so it’s best to be prepared. For additional details and up-to-the-minute chain requirements status, please visit our Winter Prep Road Conditions resource page.
  5. When highway signs indicate tire chains are required, a driver will usually have about one mile between the “Chains Required” signs and the passage checkpoint. However, these control areas can shift rapidly from place to place because of changing weather and road conditions.
  6. After initial chain installation, all of the tire chains should be re-tightened after the vehicle has been slowly driven forward or backward at least 15 feet. Failure to do so may allow the chains to remain loose, risking damage to the vehicle and reducing chain life.
  7. Accelerate and decelerate slowly. Avoid overconfidence in your grip on the road; starting or stopping too quickly can cause your wheels to spin or lock up, even with traction devices.
  8. Limit the vehicle’s speeds to within the recommended range provided by the tire chain manufacturer.
  9. Do not drive with a broken chain. If a cross chain should fail, stop immediately and make necessary repairs.
  10. Remove the chains as soon as the vehicle reaches clear roads. When removing chains, drive beyond the signs reading “End Chain Control” to a pull-off area where you can safely remove them.

While it sounds like snow chains are considered a last resort for when the conditions get really bad, preparation before driving into snow country in winter is important because it helps control a potentially frustrating and tiring driving experience.



Winter Tire FAQ

What Is The Difference Between Winter Tires and Snow Tires?

In every practical respect, they’re the same. But the term ‘snow’ tire implies that winter tires are exclusively for snow, which isn’t the case. The compounds in all-season and summer tires are designed to withstand the higher temperatures and road conditions of warm weather. They perform best at 50-90 degrees, but begin to get brittle as the temperatures drop. When temperatures start hanging at 45 degrees and below, winter tires offer better traction that allow for safer braking and accelerating. For these reasons, we prefer calling them winter tires.

How Many Winter Tires Do I Need?

For best results, you should install winter tires on all four wheels. This is true for every vehicle type. Previous generations of winter tires were little more than an all season tire with an aggressive tread design. With today’s advancement in temperature-sensitive rubber compounding, having fewer than all 4 tires installed not only impedes the tires’ ability to do their job – it may lead to handling and traction imbalances.

Do I Need Winter Tires If My Vehicle Has Traction Control?

Traction control does not actually provide you with more traction. Traction control limits your wheel spin to the amount of traction your tires can in the moment. If your tires aren’t connecting sufficiently, there’s nothing for your traction control system to control.

Do ABS Brakes Eliminate The Need For Winter Tires?

ABS brakes are a vital safety feature. They pulsate your brakes in order to keep your tires from locking up. While very helpful, ABS brakes do not eliminate the need for winter tires. Your brakes, even with the anti-lock function, do not provide traction. In fact, your braking ability is directly related to the traction provided by your tires. The best winter traction is when you have four winter tires installed on your vehicle.

My Car Has Front Wheel Drive, Do I Need Winter Tires?

Front wheel drive vehicles do have an advantage when it comes to accelerating, because of the added weight on the front end. However, this does not help when braking, and it makes steering and cornering more dangerous in winter driving conditions. The best way to maximize your front wheel drive’s winter performance is to install four winter tires. Rather than losing the performance advantages of your front wheel drive vehicle, you can increase your safety and performance with winter tires.

Do I Need Winter Tires If My Vehicle Is AWD or Four-Wheel Drive?

All-wheel drive and four-wheel drive vehicles are great at delivering the correct amount of power and control to the wheels. But if the tires aren’t gripping the driving surface, that power and control isn’t as effective. Without winter tires, accelerating, braking and turning can be just as dangerous for all-wheel drive and four-wheel drive vehicles as it is for a two-wheel drive vehicles.

When Should I Install My Winter Tires?

At AAA, we recommend you change your tires when you change the clocks. When we ‘fall back,’ it’s a great time to mount your winter tires, check your battery, and do a whole winter tuneup to ensure you’re ready for Old Man Winter. If you prefer to wait, keep an eye on the average temperatures: When they start to dip below 45 degrees and before the first snow fall, it’s time to swap. When we ‘spring forward’ and temps are consistently warmer than 45 degrees, you are ready to reinstall your all-season tires. Winter tires tend to wear faster in warm temperatures; changing them before it gets too warm will help you extend their life over to 3-4 years.

Aren’t Winter Tires Noisy And Uncomfortable?

Historically, winter tires have been louder and rougher-riding than their summer/all-season counterparts. However, advancements in tire technology have significantly improved rideability as well as performance. You may hear or sense a slight difference when changing from an all-season to a winter tire, but – in most cases – the noise levels are nowhere near what they used to be. Of course, studded winter tires will decidedly noisier than those without studs, but the increase in safety is well worth any incremental increase in noise.

Do I Need Winter Tires If I Drive Carefully?

AAA recommends always driving with care and consideration, and employing safe driving techniques can make a big difference in winter conditions. However, even the most conscientious driving will not help your tires connect to the road. traction to your tires and winter tires are a way to provide you with a safety advantage.

What If I Simply Don’t Drive When The Weather Is Bad?

Yes, it would be ideal to avoid driving when conditions get unruly. However, even with modern weather technology, it’s still very difficult to know exactly when, where, and how bad the weather will be. Rather than gambling with your safety, be prepared with winter tires that are ready to handle the weather, no matter when it strikes.